Educators are empowered by developing common goals and language together
The room was getting hot. The matter at hand was even hotter. Seventeen of our schools had plummeted to the lowest performance level allowed by the state. In short, they were failing and we had to come up with a plan.
The tension in the room was palatable as we racked our brains over how to solve the problem. Morale among the 17 schools was lower than the academic performance of the schools. Teachers seemed to be hemorrhaging away from our district and we were left with a dire dilemma: how to improve the academic performance of our schools.
As I surveyed the room, which was full of district academic team members, 60 school principals and their leadership teams, as well as others, a thought came to my mind. I reflected on my years as a school principal and as a superintendent in a much smaller system and wondered if my previous experience in school and district turnaround would prove positive this time around. With no other idea to go on, I called the room to attention in hopes that what I led before would serve us well now.
I recalled the process I had followed several times before. I borrowed it from the biblical account of King David. Prior to becoming king, David was a shepherd that was assigned a monumental task of slaying a giant. David didn't use traditional methods as he fought the giant. Instead he chose five smooth stones from a nearby riverbed to defeat his enemy. I call them stepping stones because while he chose five and only needed one, each stone was a step in the right direction.
I asked the educators in the room to recall for me what they thought were the characteristics necessary to achieve academic success as a school community. I asked them to name five things that they either did or observed that made a successful school.
I handed out sticky notes and asked that they record their thoughts on them, first individually then in pairs. Next, I asked that once the two of them had narrowed their two 5-item lists into one list of five, find two others who have done the same and complete the process again. This continued until they had a group of four people with a list of five characteristics of highly successful schools.
I could feel us stepping our way toward a very solid plan. The room was full of lists of five characteristics created by the professionals in the room. I began to combine common characteristics and refine common terminology. There was a hum in the room and positive energy began to shift the mood and the outlook. Educators were feeling valued and empowered. This was going to work.
Fast forward one year. The state accountability rankings showed a sharp decrease in the number of schools labeled as low performing from 17 to 8 in one year. The results also reflected an increase in the number of high performing schools.
As a district, we were able to secure both our state and federal accountability in addition to a two percent increase in graduation rate. Small steps for our district but positive steps nonetheless.
Our stepping stones were guiding us in the right direction. What are they, you ask? What characteristics did we determine must be present in order for our schools and its scholars to be successful?
Stepping Stone 1: Student Academic Success
Each of the steps began with a critical question. For Stepping Stone 1 the question was, "How well are our scholars attaining the challenging academic standards?" The answers help establish our belief and value systems that monitor our behavior. We determined that in order for schools to be high performing then student academic success must occur. That means high performing schools have a clear and present focus on instructional strategies that are directly linked to student academic performance and achievement.
Stepping Stone 2: Effective Principal Leadership
The question this time was, "What are school administrators doing to ensure that teaching and learning are priorities in our classrooms?" This inquiry led us to a very important point; leaders in high performing schools promote and participate in establishing goals and expectations for everyone in the building. Additionally, building leaders plan, guide, coordinate, and evaluate professional learning for staff and students.
Stepping Stone 3: Effective Teaching
This discussion immediately stirred debate. The discussion was healthy and filled with flavor but it was the question that garnered the most attention: "What is happening in our classrooms, from bell to bell, week to week, and formative to summative assessment?" I articulated it another way, "What opportunities exist for the proper development, monitoring, review, and evaluation of both our approach to curriculum delivery and the building of teacher capacity? Teachers in high performing schools share strong content mastery, command of curricular resources, and an ability to overcome learning barriers.
Stepping Stone 4: Parent and Community Engagement
As we considered the critical question for this stone, I insisted on the term engagement versus involvement. The question emerged: "In what ways are parents and community members connected to and engaged in activities that support student learning?" High performing schools engage parents and community members in the meaningful work of building and enriching the curriculum as well as the supports for students and teachers.
Stepping Stone 5: Student and Adult Recognition
This is the question that guided us for stepping stone: "In what ways are the voices and accomplishments of students and teachers affirmed?" High performing schools make a strategic and concerted effort to regularly and effectively honor the work of both students and teachers. The work and contribution of both groups is valued and that value is demonstrated both tangibly and intrinsically.
What stepping stones would you and your colleagues identify to guide your school and students to success?
Cedrick Gray is superintendent of Jackson Public Schools (MS) and serves on the AMLE on-site cadre and on the faculty for the AMLE Leadership Institute. firstname.lastname@example.org
See Dr. Gray present featured sessions at AMLE2015
in Columbus, Ohio this October on the topics of School Culture and Climate, Project Management for School Leaders, and Top School Leadership Characteristics.
There’s a great story about General Westmoreland that reminds us what can happen if we are brave
with each other. The general was reviewing a line of paratroopers and decided to talk to three of them.
"Son," he said to the first one, "Do you like to jump out of airplanes?"
The paratrooper grinned before responding enthusiastically, "Yes, sir! It’s an adrenaline rush, sir!"
The general nodded approval and moved to the next soldier. "Son, do you also like to jump out of airplanes?" he asked.
"Yes, sir," the soldier said. "I’ve dreamed of doing it all my life, sir. If you get the opportunity, you should try it some time. It’s like nothing else in this world!"
The general smiled and moved to the final soldier. "And how about you, son?" he asked. "Do you like
to jump out of airplanes?"
The soldier saluted and responded so quickly and confidently that it took the general by surprise. "No, sir!"
The general paused, then stepped closer to the soldier and looked him in the eye. "Then why are you a member of this paratrooping division?" he asked.
Again, the soldier didn’t hesitate. "Because I like to hang with guys who do like to jump out of airplanes, sir!"
Courage is contagious. When those around us demonstrate courage, it’s easier for the rest of us to
be brave. And if we are brave together, imagine what we can accomplish!
I first recognized the potential of this possibility when I was talking with a student of mine who was
a member of a violent gang. We were talking about the increasing number of gangs in our community. During the conversation, he turned to me and said, "You know, Mr. W., gangs are only as strong as the town lets them be."
I was stunned. He was correct, but I had never considered the idea. Instead, I had been wallowing in troubled desperation over the growing violence among students. His comment spurred months of personal reflection, however. I wondered: What’s not working for these children who join gangs, and what leads them down such horrific road? In what kind of community do I want to raise my own children, and what am I going to do to create and maintain it?
I attended several inservice trainings and conferences on gangs and youth violence and found kindred spirits in the participants. With each conversation with these similar-minded people, dealing with the issues that drive students to gang affiliation, solutions on how to dissolve gangs in our town, and returning neighborhoods to healthy places to raise children seemed more and more possible. Today, things have improved, but we are not finished, and there’s no room to waver in our diligence.
Deciding What’s Important
The mindset needed to take on gangs and other issues in our schools is expressed compellingly by rock band manager James Hollingworth, a.k.a. Ambrose Redmoon, a paraplegic: "Courage is not the absence of fear, but the belief that something else is more important than that fear." Reflecting on our everyday classroom practices with students and interactions with colleagues, what might we consider so important that it trumps our fears of rejection, embarrassment, breaking rules (hidden or not), or ruffling others’ feathers?
How about choosing a different novel if the one mandated by the English department isn’t working with a particular student?
How about risking embarrassment by confronting (in a constructive manner) a colleague who is doing something with students that takes a lot of class time and a lot of school resources but usually results in little or no student learning?
How about suggesting the school re-dedicate itself to teacher-advisory programs, including offering training for teachers and re-adjusting the master schedule to provide opportunities to conduct the advisories, even if a faction of faculty members don’t support it?
How about being a seasoned teacher who admits to colleagues that he doesn’t know how to teach a particular student and would like some assistance?
How about giving up the classroom we’ve had for years and taking the roving, classroom-teacher-with-a-cart position so that a new teacher can have your room and one less thing to worry about during her first years in the profession?
No one said courage was easy. Yet colleagues and mentors throughout our careers have bravely taken such risks. The least we can do, then, is dedicate ourselves to courageous acts of teaching and collegiality, even when we don’t feel like we’re up to the task.
Acts of Courage
Courage in middle schools can’t be left to chance. If we are not at a point in our careers where we can be courageous, let’s do whatever we can to help others be courageous. Our current and future students depend on at least some of us swapping fear for potential right now.
Consider doing a common, yet wonderful staff development activity: Write your personal list of what you would do if you were truly brave. As you record your thoughts, remember that you don’t have to do the tasks alone, and in fact, you’ll be more successful by sharing the journey, if for nothing else than bravery’s contagious nature.
Here is one act of courage on my part—to put forth for educators’ scrutiny my own personal list of what I would do if I were brave. It’s dangerous for me to share this list because you may disagree with me, judge me, or refuse to read anything else I write.
Nevertheless, I shall not take the timid route when so much is at stake. After reading the list, I hope you’ll create your own list to rally your energy in the new school year. Here are just 9 of my many brave acts to take:
- Adjust the school’s master schedule to support best practices, not sacrifice best practices to support the master schedule.
- Make it easier to let ineffective and toxic teachers and principals go. Some folks have misidentified their strengths or misjudged the date of their retirement.
- Ask principals who demand next week’s lesson plans from all teachers to be submitted for review each Friday to present their principal plans for next week to teachers for their review each Friday. Before I’m misquoted, however, know that I fully support struggling teachers submitting their plans for review, professional learning communities exchanging plans for collegial review and coaching, and proven veterans submitting plans at least once a year so the principal knows what’s going on in his or her school.
- Help change teacher evaluation systems so that those principals with little or no teaching experience in a teacher’s subject or grade level do not do the majority of teacher evaluations for that teacher. To critique and evaluate teachers, we must be up-to-date on the subject being taught.
- Choose to teach the students no one else wants. They are the ones who bring out our true teaching colors, who most inspire our creativity and efforts. In our democracy, we teach all students, not just those easiest to teach. It’s a feather in our cap to be considered the answer to a problem.
- Revamp most of our country’s grading systems. They do not accurately portray what happens in standards-based, differentiated classrooms.
- Open teacher practices to public scrutiny. Brave educators must have frequent opportunity to publicly defend their thinking on educational issues, formally and informally, rather than living safely behind the closed classroom door. When we must articulate what we do, it becomes real and actionable, something we constantly reference, not an abstraction.
- Question No Child Left Behind and every other federal education mandate from any political party in power from now until we retire if we have concerns about it.
- Mandate all students and their teachers get residential, outdoor education experiences of a week or more every year, including ropes initiatives courses. Adults and students come back changed for the better, closer to who we really are, critical thinkers, and appreciative of learning and each other.
Ralph Waldo Emerson said, "A hero is no braver than an ordinary man, but he is braver five minutes longer." For our students’ and communities’ sake, let’s take the opportunities in the school year ahead to dare greatly and be brave five minutes longer.
Rick Wormeli is a long-time teacher, consultant, and author living in Herndon, Virginia. His latest book, The Collected Writings (So Far) of Rick Wormeli: Crazy Good Stuff I Learned About Teaching Along the Way, which this column is excerpted from, is available from www.amle.org/store.
Published in AMLE Magazine, May 2015.
Bring Rick Wormeli to your school. Contact AMLE Director of Middle Level Services Dru Tomlin at email@example.com for more information.
A challenge teachers face every school year is how to balance their want for professional growth without losing instruction time in the classroom. Often, teachers are left deciding whether to attend professional development workshops during the school day, or to pass on the professional development so their students do not lose a day of instructional time.
As school administrators and education leaders, we have to look for creative ways to provide professional development for faculty and staff that not only allows them to remain in the classroom, but is tailored to meet their needs. Resources such as AMLE webinars and online reading materials offer educators a plethora of professional development resources that can be accessed at their leisure. This allows educators to grow professionally and maximize time in their classroom while expanding their resources on pedagogy and educating the middle level learner.
An approach I have taken in my middle school is replacing our traditional monthly faculty meetings with PD faculty sessions. The information that I previously disseminated to faculty and staff during faculty meetings is now produced in a monthly newsletter, The Faculty Focus, which is emailed to each staff member. The designated after-school monthly meeting times are now strictly dedicated to providing professional development opportunities for faculty and staff.
Teachers are encouraged to take full advantage of their AMLE membership and participate in after school webinars, join Twitter discussions, or collaborate with colleagues to discuss an article they’ve read in a recent edition of AMLE Magazine.
One fun and creative professional development workshop we held in our middle school recently was a "PD Cyber Café." By using the AMLE library of recorded webinars, I was able to provide my faculty and staff professional development that was individualized to their interest. A "menu" was created that listed ten recommended "dishes" to choose from. These "dishes" were ten of the recorded webinars from the AMLE website that I felt my staff would be most interested in.
If a staff member was interested in another option, they could select an "al a carte" item from the entire AMLE library of webinars. As teachers entered the school’s media center at the end of the school day, they grabbed a laptop, gathered at a table, selected their item from the menu, and engaged in professional development through AMLE recorded webinars.
Of course, what would a cyber café be without coffee? Coffee and light refreshments were available for staff to enjoy while taking part in their professional development.
Teachers who were interested in viewing the same webinar gathered together at tables and engaged in discussion during and after the session. Others who preferred a more private session added headphones to their laptop. When the PD session ended, teachers were provided a certificate of professional development based on the webinar they viewed.
Rather than take 45 minutes to an hour of my teachers’ time at the end of the school day to disseminate information about upcoming dates, policies, and student issues, this information was included in the newsletter. Instead, this time after school provided teachers with the opportunity for personalized professional development thanks to the AMLE library of recorded webinars. Teachers left the media center that afternoon with coffee and PD certificates in their hands and smiles on their faces. They were able to engage in excellent professional development without sacrificing instructional time from their classes.
All AMLE members have access to more than 35 recorded webinars at www.amle.org/webinars
James A. Brown is principal of Grover Cleveland Middle School in Caldwell, New Jersey.
The disruptive behavior of some students can be a top concern of middle school teachers, administrators, and parents in many schools. While time is spent considering approaches to decreasing behavioral incidents, important goals also include focusing on increasing attendance and creating a productive learning environment for students. Here are some ideas to consider as you create a school culture that engages all students as positive, productive members of the community.
Building Community in Your School
I think we can all agree that a strong sense of community within a school is important—but how do we go about effectively building community? First, we need to understand that a strong community is created by weaving bonds of understanding and caring among individuals.
The Center for Teen Empowerment has developed an interactive methodology that functions to build deep levels of communication and trust among groups of children, teens, and adults. Any school can incorporate this approach by making the commitment to work skillfully throughout the school year to engage students in activities that help them learn each other’s names, share information about their backgrounds, and talk about their hopes and dreams. The result is a school where students have the context they need to see each other as human beings who deserve respect.
Involving Student Leadership
The best way to achieve this result is to recruit and engage a broad range of students to work as partners with faculty in facilitating these community-building activities. By “a broad range of students,” I mean that the leadership group should include students who are most likely to be involved in negative behaviors as well as students who would more typically be tapped for leadership positions.
Integrating students who are having difficulty with those who are experiencing more success allows those who are doing well to influence those who are not. It also gives the leadership group the credibility needed to positively influence the school culture across the board.
What Might It Look Like?
Picture an assembly with students and teachers speaking about their lives and talking about their hopes for the coming year. Maybe there’s a skit with role reversals—students act as teachers and teachers act as students. Perhaps there is a student speak-out, where audience members are asked to comment.
Then students return to classrooms or break into small groups where they spend a period engaged in interactive exercises that help them learn names, speak in pairs about their lives, brainstorm issues they face, and set goals for the year.
Of course, none of this is easy, but neither is teaching math, science, or English! In fact, teachers go through years of training and spend countless hours of in-school, after-school, and out-of-school time doing everything they can to help students learn. But when it comes to the essential component of building community in the school, though we agree that it’s important, we usually dedicate little or no resources to making it happen.
In our 23 years of experience at the Center for Teen Empowerment, we have repeatedly seen the major payoff for all elements of the school when community-building strategies, propelled by student leadership, are implemented. It’s an investment that is well worth the effort.
Stanley Pollack is the founder and executive director of the Center for Teen Empowerment, which works in Boston and Somerville, MA, and in Rochester, NY, and he is the author of Moving Beyond Icebreakers: An Interactive Approach to Group Facilitation, Learning, and Action.
What should school leaders do when a reporter is at their door?
“Hi, this is Larry Jones from XYZ paper and I would like to ask you a few questions about allegations of bullying by teachers at your school.”
“Good morning. This is Sarah Brown from station ABC. What can you tell me about the decline in your students’ standardized test scores last year?”
If you are a school administrator and you haven’t already been approached by a reporter from the local media, you very well could be. And while your first reaction to media questions—regardless of the topic—may be to mutter “no comment” and move on, the first rule of thumb when dealing with reporters is never to say “no comment.”
So what should you do when a reporter comes calling? Be prepared long before you get the call or hear the knock on the door.
First Things First
The first key to dealing effectively with the media is establishing a solid relationship. If you’re there for them in bad times, they’ll be there for you in good times.
Early in the school year, invite newspaper, television, and radio reporters to meet with you. Discuss your education philosophy, your school vision and goals, advances in the curriculum. Remember, they are not educators, so explain acronyms and give them an overview of education budgets, contracts, and the negotiation process. The more they understand, the less likely they will be to misquote or skewer you with adversarial copy.
That’s not to say they won’t report negative information. Their expectations are quite different from yours. They have a story to tell. But if you have a good relationship, they’ll be more willing to hear your side first.
Before you agree to any interviews, ask the reporters who they are, whom they represent, the topic of the interview, how much time they expect the interview to take, and who else is being contacted about the topic. Remember that you are in charge of the interview and you may terminate the interview (in a professional manner) should it go outside the boundaries you set—yes, the boundaries you set.
So, what do you say? Practice by anticipating questions, preparing your answers (but not memorizing them), having key facts readily available, and using key messages. Key messages are like mission statements: short, to the point, and reflecting positively on your district or school. Even in a tense situation, weave these messages into your statements.
For example, let’s say your key message is your school’s commitment to supporting the community through high-quality education. A reporter asks you, “Can you confirm that you are cutting four teachers from next year’s budget?”
Here’s your key message: “We are currently investigating ways to reduce our budget; however, please remember that we are committed to promoting a high quality of life in our community by educating our children—that’s our priority.”
With the basics in mind, let’s look at several scenarios and some tips for making every interview a success.
Tip #1: Have a good administrative assistant. When I worked in a K–12 district, I was blessed to have an administrative assistant who recognized reporters’ voices when they called. When they asked to speak to me, she said without hesitation: “I’m sorry, she’s not in her office right now. Can I tell her what this is about?” Almost every reporter shared the reason for the call, providing me ample time to prepare my response or check with other experts in our district.
Tip #2: Clear your desk. When preparing for a telephone interview, clear your desk. If you have papers and calendars in front of you and a cell phone that’s buzzing with a text from your spouse, you’re not paying attention to the interview and may say something you didn’t mean to say.
If you are conducting a face-to-face interview in your office, in addition to clearing off your desk, close emails and documents on your computer screen. That letter, memo, or email open on the computer behind you should be for your eyes only.
Tip #3: Don’t be pressured by silence. That’s some reporters’ secret weapon—getting interviewees to talk through the “pregnant pause.” The reporter hopes you will find the silence uncomfortable and will fill it with information you hadn’t intended to disclose. Answer the question and say no more! As you wind down the interview, summarize and restate your points.
Tip #4: Don’t ever speak off the record. Journalists are supposed to respect the privacy of an off-the-record remark, but remember that they want the news, they want to lead over other media, and they may use whatever you say—on and off the record.
Tip #5: Relax and maintain composure. When doing a telephone interview, sit up straight and put both feet flat on the floor. Why? When you sit up straight, your voice is stronger and you sound more in command. And that’s what you want to do: be in command of the interview.
For a stand-up interview, keep your hands out of your pockets and don’t cross your arms in front of you. Instead, place your hands behind your back and interlock your fingers. This will not only make your posture better, but it will also give you a hidden outlet for nervousness or anger.
Tip #6. Have a crisis communication plan. Each of you will be involved with a crisis situation at some time in your career, and the last thing on your mind should be dealing with the media. Your district administration should designate someone to be the spokesperson. This person will be trained to deal with the media effectively. If, however, you do find yourself facing the media:
- Keep your messages simple, direct, and don’t speculate.
- Don’t be afraid to say, “I don’t know.” But follow that up with, “but I’ll find out and get the answer to you by.”
By following these tips, you will be on your way to a much better relationship with the members of your press and you’ll know just want to say.
Kelly McBride is an assistant professor of public relations at Virginia Tech in Blacksburg, Virginia. She is the former director of communications for a K–12 school district in Pennsylvania. firstname.lastname@example.org
Published in AMLE Magazine
, November 2014.
As I reflect on my 25-year career as a middle level administrator, one of the high points was the creation of an alternative learning environment for a group of seventh grade students. Realizing a growth bubble was heading towards the middle school, a partnership between the school district and a state-operated farm museum became a reality that offered a school-within-a-school opportunity for almost 30 students while reducing class size in the traditional middle school.
Modeled after the long successful Radnor (PA) Watershed program, the brainchild of Mark Springer, the program got off to a flying start as three dynamic middle school teachers were chosen to staff the program. The first year of the program was very successful, as evidenced by the quantity of interested students requiring that participants be selected by lottery. Spending a bit less than fifty percent of their instructional time off campus was clearly a draw for non-traditional learners. (For more about this program, read "Capturing the Obvious," Principal Leadership, May 2003).
As the program headed towards the mid-point of the year, plans were generated to allow the group of students to remain together in their eighth grade year under the umbrella of a second non-traditional program that would operate as an outdoor environmental program.
Despite the hoopla surrounding the implementation of these two new and exciting initiatives, within three years of their inception, and with a change in the school’s administration, both programs were eliminated. Another team was added to the instructional organization of the school to absorb the number of students who were previously served by the two initiatives. Unlike the long running Radnor program, these programs were essentially decommissioned and the teachers reassigned.
A post mortem of these programs may afford principals who think out-of-the-box some insight as they contemplate taking the road less traveled in their attempts to create non-traditional learning environments for their students.
Change is inevitable
Regardless of an organization’s structure, there are no assurances that its culture will remain constant as school and district personnel, policies, and philosophies go through the natural evolutionary process. Demographic shifts, emphasis on state-wide assessments and related benchmarks along with a community's perception of what programs reflect best educational practices are factors that impact the longevity of a program or course of study.
Nothing is as simple as it appears
From the time an idea is conceived until it realizes fruition the journey is not simple. To think otherwise is unrealistic and will prevent the concept from taking flight. The hurdles encountered are usually cleared with the involvement of many individuals at various levels within the organization.
Finances fuel the engine of change
Unless substantially underwritten by outside funding sources, programs thought to be non-essential will be short-lived. In today’s cash strapped economy, school boards, administrators, and teachers are expected to do more with less. Programs that remotely smack of elitism or are non-traditional in design and structure are at greatest risk for being eliminated.
Let go of ownership
Once developed and operational, a program's ownership becomes that of the school or district. Despite the investment of time, energy, and ego, a school’s program is not personal property. Embracing this thinking is healthy for all stakeholders in the development process.
Stay clear of naysayers
The inherent risk of creating a start-up program is not usually embraced by negative people. Rather than seeing the beauty of implementing a new program, there are some who, quietly or not, sit on the sidelines waiting for failure to take place. In designing a new program, involve people who have positive energy and can serve as resources or go-to people along the creative pathway.
Individuals who are capable of affecting change through innovative program design are usually risk takers who are highly motivated. Remaining creative and productive often means repeating the creative process of defining a need and determining how to best address it. After a program has been developed and instituted there are usually a string of other needs waiting to be addressed by out-of-the box thinkers. Allow the process to begin anew by earmarking a specific need and designing an appropriate response to it. Repeating the creative process, while sometimes tedious is invigorating and gratifying.
The process of being retrospective and analyzing the success or failure of a program is an opportunity for self-exploration and discovery. Take time to be reflective both individually and with your school or program team. This reflection time will help you identify concepts and ideas and formulate strategies and plans to address those concerns that will impact the educational environment and ultimately the students you serve.
Robert Ruder, Ed.D., is an educational consultant and author, and has been a middle grades administrator and advocate for more than 25 years. E-mail: email@example.com
We want students to remember the positive lessons we teach.
Middle grades educators spend almost all their time and energy dealing with what is taught, the content that is presented in classrooms and courses. This is understandable, given the great attention placed on cognitive learning/academic achievement.
But the school is so much more than a physical facility in which teachers present lessons; it is a laboratory of living where ongoing practices and relationships educate. Educators should stop every now and then to consider the lessons the school may be teaching via its programs, policies, rules, and regulations—by its way of life. When doing so, they may be surprised—and chagrined.
A discouraging percentage of what is taught explicitly in the formal curriculum is forgotten in a matter of months. This is a recognized and accepted reality. But the lessons that the school teaches implicitly remain, because they become internalized, subtly but certainly, as students over time live under the school's tutelage.
William Heard Kilpatrick, often considered America's greatest teacher, claimed, "We learn what we live, and we learn it to the degree that we live it." And noted educator Eliot Eisner wisely reminded us that "Schools teach much more—and much less—than they intend to teach."
Much of the "more" that the school unintentionally teaches is positive, and an entire article or two might well be given over to acknowledging and elaborating on the significant, life-changing lessons individual teachers transmit just by being in relationships with students. Indeed, when all is said and done, the influence that the teacher as a person has on the attitudes, values, and behavior of a student may be the most certain and significant "take-away" from a year spent in that teacher's classroom.
The Hidden Curriculum
Fortunately, even though newspaper stories about education seem to be concerned exclusively with reporting on the cognitive side of an education as indicated by test scores—as if that were all a real education was about—most parents do recognize and appreciate the impact that a teacher has on a student apart from the formal cognitive lessons.
However, a good many of the lessons unintentionally taught by the school run completely counter to a school's stated objectives and to the middle school philosophy. It is those undesirable lessons, part of the hidden curriculum, that a faculty needs to recognize, think about, and then consider a way to down-play or counter. Many of these lessons evolve from long-standing practices that are deeply ingrained in our culture and cannot be altered immediately or easily. However, by being conscious of these undesirable lessons being taught, teachers can help students understand the background of practices and gain a needed perspective.
For example, consider the undesirable lessons inherent in most schools' grading systems. Doesn't our uniform, single-standard grading scale run counter to our purported goal of helping all students build a positive self-concept? What conclusion can some students come to when time after time they are expected to excel where all their prior school experiences have demonstrated they cannot possibly place in the top group?
What does the heavy emphasis on grades lead students to conclude about the goal of education? When you stop and think about it, you must recognize that a school via its grading practices actually teaches some kids that they are dumb!
Although it certainly isn't a school's intention, ability grouping practices inevitably teach some undesirable lessons. They teach that some kids are worth more than others. When some students are identified as "gifted," and dealt with in special ways, all other students automatically become "non-gifted"—a label we don't want to place on students who are in the process of becoming.
Consider also a school's typical discipline code and policy. Isn't it based on negative assumptions about the nature of young adolescents? Doesn't it specify consequences for assumed misbehavior rather than confirm positive expectations? Does it often encourage kids to learn ways to beat the system? Do students learn, regrettably, that adults don't trust them?
Food for Thought
In almost all middle schools, we must face the unfortunate truth that lessons that conflict with the school's commitment to providing the best developmentally responsive education possible for all students are inadvertently being taught. The ways we manage, sort, label, instruct, and assess students convey messages. We know that during these malleable early adolescent years, youth are developing the self-concepts and personal standards, values, and attitudes that will direct their behavior in the years ahead, so it does seem most important that the undesirable lessons the school teaches should be faced and educators should take actions to counter them.
Think about it. Consider taking time in team meetings and faculty sessions to tackle this important issue.
John H. Lounsbury is a long-time middle level advocate and dean emeritus of the John H. Lounsbury College of Education at Georgia College and State University, Milledgeville, Georgia.He is a featured presenter at AMLE2014. firstname.lastname@example.org
Published in AMLE Magazine
, September 2014
Findings from research studies suggest that school leadership accounts for fully one quarter of total school effects on pupils, making it second only to classroom instruction among school-based factors affecting student achievement (Leithwood, Louis, Anderson & Wahlstrom, 2004). While a considerable body of research has analyzed effective school leadership in general, remarkably few studies have examined the leadership of middle grades schools in particular (Anfara, Roney, Smarkola, DuCette, & Gross, 2006), despite the fact that students’ performance in the middle grades has been linked to later life success (Balfanz, 2007). The purpose of this study was to describe and analyze middle grades principals' perceptions of effective school leadership. We focus within this article on leadership dispositions in particular, in the interest of space and because the domain remains particularly unexamined within the middle grades literature. We begin with a brief overview of related research and the theoretical framework that grounds our study. We then describe the qualitative methodology employed to pursue our purpose. Next we examine two key areas of our findings on middle grades leadership dispositions: developmental responsiveness and relationship. Finally, we consider the implications of this work for policy, practice and future research.
Published in Research in Middle Level Education Online, 2014.
Students sit down face to face to confront bullies and bullying.
Bullying isn’t what it used to be. In the age of social media, taunts and gossip are now posted on the Internet for all to see. When those comments become bullying that affects our students, educators require a new approach—one that is simple, honest, and to the point. We must let the students take the lead.
At Punta Gorda Middle School in Florida, we empowered students to push back against bullying and educated the entire community about the problem.
To address the problem of bullying, we started with group meetings. Students who were having trouble with bullies or were concerned about the learning environment met in a classroom during homeroom to talk about the issue and brainstorm resolutions. Those who were being bullied often invited their tormentors to join in the discussion. The group met for about 15 to 20 minutes. All interested students could attend; they simply needed permission from their homeroom teacher. Attendance varied between 10 and 80 students per session.
The group gave the students an opportunity to sit down with their peers whom they perceived as bullies. When confronted, some of the bullies said they didn’t want to be bullies; others said they didn’t know why they bullied. Many of these students began to recognize the negative effects of their behavior and continued to participate in the group sessions.
Some bullies said their teasing was all in fun and opted to not participate. Before they left the room, however, the other students had a chance to share their concerns and to remind them that they could change their behavior. Being confronted by their peers rather than by administrators was powerful and did make an impression on many of the perceived bullies.
Based on earlier success we had filming students talking about school safety, we decided to film the students talking about their experiences and air the videos schoolwide. We called the program The Roundtable, reflecting the idea that all students have an equal voice.
Students who participated in The Roundtable met twice a week at the beginning of homeroom to discuss their thoughts about bullying in school, on the bus, at the bus stop, in the locker room, and so on. All students were invited to attend.
Each filmed session was edited to highlight the student’s voice. We aired the 15-minute videos over the cable system once or twice a month at the beginning of homeroom, encouraging teachers to continue the discussion in homeroom. We also made the videos available to teachers on DVDs so they could show them at convenient and appropriate times.
Teachers were not required to show the videos, and some opted not to, but allowing students to take this leadership role created new relationships among students and affected students where it matters most—in the heart.
Unlike generic public service announcements that last 15 seconds and are forgotten, Roundtable videos are unscripted and feature students in classes talking about what matters to them. They hope to make the environment in which they live and learn safer for everyone, including the adults.
Everyone is responsible for ensuring a safe, nurturing school environment. Don’t wait until someone loses a life. Be on the side of prevention, not reaction.
Sean M. Brooks, a former middle school teacher, currently teaches at Charlotte High School in Punta Gorda, Florida. email@example.com
This article was published in AMLE Magazine
, April 2014
Education is indeed a noble calling. Among and between the frustrations, red tape, glacial speed of change, monotony, and normal emotional fallout of “crucial conversations,” there are those wonderful, magical moments when we know exactly why we do what we do.
But, like anything, we sometimes find ourselves falling into a catatonic routine of stand up and deliver, of sit down and correct, of coloring within the lines. In essence our routines dominate and demotivate.
I had the luxury of spending two hours with the staff at an incredible startup technology company. I was brought in as a consultant to provide some insight to a group of talented, motivated Millennials. Yet I was the one who walked away with the insight.
The lessons I learned can be applicable to educators and change agents in every industry.
- The company is flat. Clearly, there was a pecking order in title and responsibility, yet I could not tell who was in charge of anything. People collaborated in one large open space without cubicles or doors separating people or preventing access. The energy was palpable; the structure of power or chain of command was not.
Someone once told me that the legendary headmaster at Deerfield Academy had his desk in the main hallway of the school. Even if this is urban legend, it makes us wonder if school leaders may be missing an opportunity to be more accessible, more in the fray.
Several years ago, I worked at a charter school where all the teachers worked in “pods,” where several desks were pushed together in grade teams in one large room. The energy was amazing.
- Questions are the drivers. I sat in a meeting where I was peppered with questions—specific ones, general ones, hypothetical ones, probing ones. Clearly, the work of these entrepreneurs is to seek solutions. Looking for the next big question seemed like a part of the ethos, the mission-led approach to providing outstanding customer service.
Framing questions also helps organize the impressive amount of qualitative and quantitative research that goes on in this company. Honest feedback from experts, ordinary users, and “power” users is critical.
Walls were covered with whiteboards, which in turn were covered with running conversations in marker—ideas, diagrams, more questions, some answers. The incessant scribbling was like an organic exhibit of mission, action, and collaboration on a canvas of dreams, hope, and sweat.
Might asking clear, specific questions help educators improve the student experience? Might students be a great resource, since they are the ones “living” the educational experience?
Maybe education leaders should set question goals per day and per week to gather as much data as possible. One must know what is going on to be able to change what is going on.
- Professional trust—not rules—is key. At this company, I saw staff putting golf balls on synthetic turf and wearing jeans and rock band t-shirts. The office would not have won any neatness awards. The creative energy in the place was overwhelming, and in between their short mental breaks from work, serious work was being done.
It was as if the boss had said to the staff, “You are talented, you are trusted. Do your work well, and be who you are. Work hard and long. Have fun. Solve problems. Let me know when you want feedback.”
Talk about motivating!
In Professional Capital: Transforming Teaching in Every School, Andy Hargreaves and Michael Fullan address many of the same ideas: trust, expertise, autonomy. Perhaps there is a way to make education more entrepreneurial, to capture the spirit of the world I witnessed and recruit and hire some of its brightest people.
Jason Larocque is middle level director at St. John’s Prep School in Danvers, Massachusetts. www.stjohnsprep.org