Do Your Instructional Materials Support an Uncertain Return to School?

Do Your Instructional Materials Support an Uncertain Return to School?

A resource for reflection and planning

Right now, school systems across the country are planning for a variety of possibilities for the fall: in-school, remote learning, or a hybrid approach. The truth is we just don’t know what school will look like. What we do know is that no matter what happens, high-quality, aligned instructional materials will play an integral role in supporting teachers and ensuring students can continue to learn.

Are you certain the materials you have in place can address student needs? Where are the strengths and gaps in what you’re currently using? Will you need to adopt a new program over the summer? As district leaders prepare for potential ongoing interruptions during the 2020-21 school year, we’ve created a new resource to help them answer these questions and determine next steps.

The EdReports Reflection and Planning Tool

EdReports created a tool specifically designed to support educators in examining their current instructional materials in order to prioritize the highest leverage actions they can take to support remote learning. Materials provide the foundation for student learning. They become even more critical when students are learning at home with remote instruction and support from teachers. Access the tool on EdReports.org.

In planning and preparing for the next school year, many leaders are considering the quality and alignment of the materials currently used in the system as well as how those materials translate to remote learning. This tool guides district leaders to consider the context of and interaction between three critical elements: instructional materials, the school system, and the community.

However, it is important to keep in mind materials matter not just in a moment of crisis but over the long term. Research in the field tells us that curriculum adoptions are an investment that will have an impact on teaching and learning in your district over the next five to seven years. This tool is designed to help educators consider the longer term needs of their district beyond re-entry this fall.

The Tool is Comprised of 4 sections:

  • High-Quality Instructional Materials: In this section you’ll find templates for ELA, math, and science, with a reflection to complete for each content area. You can make additional copies of the template to consider other content areas.
  • School System Landscape: You only need to complete the section once, as the statements span all content areas.
  • Community Experience: You only need to complete the section once, as the statements span all content areas.
  • Putting it all together and preparing for next school year: This section guides you in a synthesis of your reflections across the previous sections and provides a framework to guide you in your preparations for next school year.
  • How to Approach Your Reflection and Planning Process

    As you dive into this resource, we recommend that teams engage in discussion across each section of the reflection tool: instructional materials, system context, and community experience. Given the depth of the reflection portion of this tool, the team could convene virtually or in-person when safety allows and collaboratively work through all three sections. Additionally, the work could be broken into sub-teams to complete the sections and convene for a discussion after they are complete. These discussions are key to beginning your own preparation work, which the tool also provides guidance on.

    No matter the meeting structure, teams should approach each section from an asset orientation, rather than a deficit orientation. The intent of the reflection is not to assign blame or rehash past mistakes, but to understand the context in order to move forward effectively.

    Invest in the Future Now

    Materials matter. They mattered this spring when the COVID-19 crisis forced schools to close for months. And they will matter in the future as students face learning loss and teachers work to overcome existing and newly created gaps. By investing the time now to assess where you are and what your students and teachers truly need, you are setting your district up for success in the fall, no matter what challenges arise.

    Access the Reflection and Planning Tool along with other resources to identify and adopt high-quality instructional materials on EdReports.org.


    Jess Box is director of field services for EdReports.

    Author: Jess Box
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    Questions Before Opening Schools

    Questions Before Opening Schools

    Real issues, realistic solutions

    With so many things happening in our world and in our country, now is the time to talk about some of the transformational changes that need to occur within our schools. Each facet of society will need to make changes to insure everyone’s health and well-being. Schools are not excluded. We need to start asking some tough questions and seeking realistic solutions.

    For years middle level education leaders, parents, and teachers have been saying, "We need to ______."

    Our usual “normal” has been shattered. So, let’s see this as an extraordinary moment to transform the norm by doing some of those things we’ve been saying need to happen.

    School, in some form, will start in a matter of weeks. States and districts are planning what our schools will look like when we return. Beyond the plans at those levels, the question remains for teachers and leaders at individual schools: "What answers do we need in order to open school, and where do we start?"

    Here are some critical areas to address and re-envision before students enter school doors, hallways, classrooms, gyms, and cafeterias. We’ve posed questions, considerations, and ideas for you to consider as you plan. It is our hope that some of the insights will start your discussions around these opportunities (and imperatives) for change.

  • Survey, gather, and share information from students, parents, and staff. Create agreed-upon protocols.
  • Plan to meet the social-emotional needs of students, parents and teachers.
  • Re-evaluate the curriculum, instruction, and connections among disciplines.
  • Redefine the roles of the educator.
  • Build stronger bridges with parents and families
  •  

    Gathering and Sharing Information

    Take this incredible chance to gather information from all stakeholders in your school community. The first step is to create a leadership team of administrators, teachers, parents, and students to help formulate key questions that must be asked and answered before students return. The time you take to survey parents, students, and teachers (and other school staff) will be critical to creating a plan to reintroduce everyone to school.

    Be sure to ask these questions of all stakeholders:

    1. What have you learned about yourself during this quarantine experience?
    2. What is your biggest fear about returning to school?
    3. \
    4. What would make you feel more comfortable to enter the school building?
    5. What ideas or suggestions would you offer regarding returning to school?
    6. What should we (the school and its staff) not do?
    7. How comfortable are you with alternative schedules (half days or every-other-day attendance for groups of students)?
    8. How useful was virtual learning during the quarantine/summer?
    9. What suggestions do you have to make future virtual or distance learning better?

    The next step is this: With the leadership team, review, organize, and summarize the responses. Get a good sense of the pulse of your school community. Define the trends in thoughts, fears, concerns, and ideas. Take all of them seriously. Identify those you can control. Seek out and plan honest, thoughtful, workable solutions to address the concerns and embrace the suggestions.

    Creating Protocols

    Departments of education and local school districts are working hard to develop new protocols for schools. Much of this is not within our control (that is, teachers and leaders of individual schools). What we can control are some of the ways we reintroduce students to school. Here is what we can do once the state and district guidelines are introduced:

    1. Have a teacher record a welcome video of his or her classroom. This will allow students and parents to see the room before they arrive
    2. Create a virtual tour of the building.
    3. Create some humorous videos on how to open a locker.
    4. Meet with students virtually before school starts to talk about what the new norms will be and explain why we need to be respectful of our students’ space. Be sure to reach each student. Share classroom and team norms before students arrive back to school. Let them know all measures that will be in place to look out for their health, what will be different, how materials (including personal possessions and backpacks) will be handled, etc.
    5. Put the protocols in writing. Send them to each family. Also share them virtually if possible.
    6. Make sure families have straightforward information about how learning will happen if they choose to continue it from home.
    7. Offer families an “information channel” to ask burning questions they have before returning. This will help calm fears and build trust in the school staff.

    There must be an emphasis on the non-negotiable items within the school. If masks are required, how will it be handled if a student or staff member refuses? If many of these precautions are designed for the safety of others, what will be the protocol for not complying? Make sure such decisions are made and communicated to students and families.

    Meeting the SEL Needs of Students, Parents, and Teachers

    It’s normal to have feelings of apprehension and reticence when it comes to the start of any school year. Now with the added health concerns, teachers, parents, and students are going to be extra nervous. Many will feel torn between returning to school and being safe at home. Outside influences such as the media, social media, friends, and even parents can feed students’ anxieties.

    Schools need to acknowledge and listen to these fears. They must continue to check in on the social and emotional well-being of the school community as a whole. This includes teachers! Now is the time to create an extended SEL plan. Here are some questions to ask of yourselves:

    1. How will students react to being in a crowded classroom?
    2. How do teachers feel about being in a classroom with over 25 students?
    3. What should teachers and students with compromised immune systems do about returning to school?
    4. Are the current policies on absence appropriate?
    5. How will counseling staff implement long-term care, not just for students, but also for parents and staff?
    6. Is there an appropriate advisory system in place?
    7. Has an SEL team been formed to set plans for helping students adjust back to the school setting (and to the changed school setting)?
    8. What practices will we follow to respond to the trauma students have incurred?
    9. How will we prioritize and nurture relationships that buffer the anxiety?
    10. What approaches will we practice to help manage emotions?
    11. How will we set the tone for the calm, predictable, and stable climate that students need? (Remember: kids can’t learn if they feel unsafe, scattered, or anxious.)
    12. What measures will be provided for students (or parents) to voice their fears, get help, ask questions, or receive comfort during the school day?
    13. How will we provide for the actions that protect students from distress such as laughter, fun, exercise, relaxation, fresh air, access to support from staff members?
    14. How will we adults in the school attend to our individual needs for calm, trust, hope, and energy in the face of the tasks of teaching well while keeping safe?

    Curriculum and Connections

    Already, during the shut-down, many schools have reframed choices about curriculum as well as about learning practices and tools. As a new school year fraught with uncertainty looms, all educators are pressed to get ready to step into unfamiliar territory. We’re pressed to make decisions about priorities and how to manage them. With understanding that there is no one-size-fits-all program, we share some thoughts and strategies to consider as you continue to transform the norm in matters of curriculum.

    1. In grade-level groups or teams, take time to review what curriculum is critical and must be taught versus the need to teach everything. Make decisions about this and set priorities for coverage.
    2. In grade-level groups or teams, decide what to do about lost learning of the 2019-2020 year. What concepts and skills are critical to review or teach because they didn’t get them in the first place? How will you make sure all students are ready to move on to new content and next-level skills?
    3. Start looking at the curriculum for the first semester of school. Now is the time to start building innovative lessons for next year. We know there will be at least some virtual teaching needs for kids (who don’t return to school or leave for extended periods of time). Why not be proactive and start recording lessons now?
    4. Most schools will likely need some kind of hybrid learning model to accommodate students who are not comfortable returning to the in-school setting. Thus, in all curriculum planning, think about how assignments will be provided both in and out of the classroom, both in print or hands-on work and technologically.
    5. Coordinate among disciplines to teach similar concepts or skills at the same time.
    6. Create lessons with other department-level teachers so you can build a great archive of lessons for students. For example: One teacher can take these seven parts of the curriculum and a colleague can take the other seven. Then together they can create pre-recorded lessons to use.
    7. Meet with other teachers to talk about ways to have assignments that can be counted for multiple subjects.
    8. Make sure video lessons are short and sweet and directly cover key points.
    9. Use resources outside the classroom to demonstrate a lesson. Involve your own family in the lesson. Make sure the task at the end has a hands-on experience or includes a practical problem that the students must solve.
    10. Start creating learning logs into which students enter curriculum connections that they see in real life.
    11. Advocate for a plan (and the funds) to see that every student has a digital tablet or computer to use at home. Push for free Internet services for all students.
    12. 12. Coordinate assignments across classes and disciplines. Have a standard system for communicating and keeping track of assignments for all students. Make sure students aren’t deluged with emails and directives from several different teachers every day. Don’t assume that each student will automatically manage to keep track of multiple assignments well. Doing the assignment is the important thing; let’s not overwhelm students with just figuring out what the assignments are and which to do when.

    Reimagining the Role of the Educator

    How we deliver instruction, monitor progress, and assess learning needs to change. Period. No longer is the teacher the smartest person in the room. Students understand the vast resources that are available to them. We are no longer confined to the walls of a classroom. There is no need for sit-and-get teaching as a default model. The time is now for our districts to be bold—to stand up against standardized tests as the mark of what a student knows, to remove our teachers as supreme knowledge givers, and instead help them become facilitators who learn beside their students. It’s time to implement multiple teaching strategies beyond what we’ve always used. We can set up in-class learning centers or online learning packets, virtual lessons, social media resources, project-based opportunities, virtual small groupings, and a host of other tech or non-tech approaches. More than ever, our students are looking at us and asking, "Why are you telling me this? I can Google it."

    Here are some ideas that can help change the role of the teacher:

    1. Be prepared to offer live and virtual lessons.
    2. Use other teachers in the building to help deliver virtual lessons.
    3. Make sure you have some creative learning centers to help divide students into smaller groups.
    4. Hire staff to deliver virtual lessons (or engage the teachers who choose not to return to the school building right now).
    5. Use students to create and deliver lessons and to check up on concepts learned.
    6. Review grading practices and opportunities for multiple assignments in multiple grades and subjects.
    7. Consider doing live classes in the morning and virtual classes in the afternoon.
    8. Set intentional plans (with specific practices) to listen to the students’ voices and to allow student choice. This goes far beyond just engaging students in activities. It means that we must empower today’s students to become problem solvers, creators, innovators. These are the skills that our economy requires and that students must have for the school world and the real world.

    Building Stronger Bridges with Parents

    The old saying goes, “Everyone is an expert in school because we all went through it.” During this quarantine time, many parents have gotten a taste of what it’s like to be teachers. They’ve also been able to experience and understand some of their own children’s academic and behavioral strengths and issues. They’ve dealt with their child’s lack of motivation and defiance around wanting to do schoolwork. Parents have had to set up expectations and hold their own children accountable to their school lessons. At the same time, teachers themselves have become all-day parents to their own children.

    This quarantine has brought parents and teachers to a place where they are sharing roles—teachers and parents both! This is a great opportunity for everyone to notice some camaraderie and get on the same page for the task of helping their children and students learn. How can we create strong bridges that allow teachers and parents to work together with genuine cooperation for one purpose? Here are a few ideas:

    1. Send thank you videos to parents to help close out the current school year (even if the year is officially over).
    2. When school opens again, thank the parents with a celebration.
    3. Get creative with ideas for offering professional development for parents. Use a variety of approaches—virtual “helps,” emails, articles, guides.
    4. Ask parents if offering remote learning for most of the week is better suited for their child in the fall. (Many kids that struggled in the traditional environment are thriving at home.)
    5. Create Google or Zoom Meets for parents to check in but establish agendas rather than having an open-ended meeting. Agenda ideas could include such things as: how to motivate their child, accessing grading programs, or how to take care of themselves.
    6. For parents of students in grades P-8, allow parents to determine if their child will receive a letter grade or Pass/Fail grade during remote learning. Make sure to set and communicate clear criteria for either grading approach. Have parents help in the grading.
    7. Invite parents (that represent your demographics) to serve on a transition team for heading back in the fall.
    8. Make sure parents have an easy, reliable way to get in touch with the teacher or other school official—when they need help, have questions, or need any kind of support for themselves or their child.

    Remember; there are some things we can control during this time and other things that will be mandated. Right now, let's spend some time dealing with what we can change immediately in our school.


    Jack Berckemeyer is an author, speaker, javelin catcher and humorist.
    jberckemeyer@yahoo.com

    @jberckemeyer on Twitter
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    www.jackberckemeyer.com

    Kim Campbell is a proud teacher, daring dean, and lover of DQ ice cream.
    @kimcamp4kids
    Kim.mtm on Instagram

    Dedra Stafford is an author, speaker, teacher for life, and Tik Tok novice
    dedra@dedrastafford.com

    www.dedrastafford.com
    @dedrasedu on Twitter
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    Author: Jack Berckemeyer, Kim Campbell, Dedra Stafford
    Number of views (7)/Comments (0)/
    End-of-Year Closure Ideas

    End-of-Year Closure Ideas

    A powerful gift of reflection and learning for teachers and students

    I’m sure you’ve heard the following statements recently:

    No crisis should ever go to waste.
    Make the most of every opportunity.
    Crisis either makes you or breaks you; creates you or destroys you.

    I’m not sure how you’re responding, but I’ve been a little emotional since the command “to stay home” and currently the direction “to get out safely!” I’ve seen my neighbors get this virus: one passed away and the other survived but needed shoulder surgeries from a fall due to dehydration from the virus.

    I’ve had mixed emotions such as despair from losing my neighbor and dog-sitter, gratitude that spring is here, fear I just touched something, joy that I get to see my kids more (home from college), helplessness about friends/family losing jobs, and calm since I have more time to reflect.

    I love writing in my journal about what I’m learning in life, how I’m growing, and processing emotions that I don’t always have the time to process. And the more stress I experience, the more I feel the need to think, discuss, or write about my feelings, perceptions, and responses. Taking the time to process in those ways has two-fold power:

    Opportunity to grow, improve, and practice resilience.
    Opportunity to process the range of emotions, allowing me to become more aware and solve some problems.


    This article will give you the why, the how, and examples of powerful ways to routinely or sporadically reflect in order to change how you respond to your stressors or emotions. In fact, it’s the best closure for teachers and students during this COVID-19 school year.

    What Are Stress and Trauma and Why Is It Important to Process Them?

    My favorite definition of stress is “the physiological response to a perception of a lack of control over an adverse situation or person.” Stress is real to each person because it is a person’s perception of a situation (not an outsider’s opinion on it). Interestingly enough, some stress is good for us, but when stress becomes chronic, ongoing, unpredictable and unrelenting, it’s toxic to the brain and learning.

    Trauma can be defined as “an emotional response to a terrible event.” Some people will experience more chronic stress and trauma than others during this time based on experiences around them that shape their perceptions. That’s a problem because research shows that stress and trauma drastically lower the immune system’s power, impair memory, accelerate aging, increase inflammation, and decrease ability to cope.

    But before you start to stress over your stress levels, know this: each person has control over how they respond to stressors, which means that effective coping tools can make a huge difference during times of stress.

    COVID-19 will be gone one day; this distance learning and the unknown are not permanent. When we emerge from this time of adversity, we have the potential to see the benefits: it can build your resiliency factor, help you determine which coping tools work best for you, help you sort through uncertainty and confusion (awareness), and encourage you to think outside the box to solve problems.

    In fact, research has shown that individuals who go through challenging life experiences arise from them with a greater appreciation of life and more resilience to bounce back from future difficulties. One research study found that earning a college degree in a recession had lasting effects on job satisfaction and attitude. Research suggests that forced periods of uncertainty (adversity) could lead to increased flexibility, gratitude, and satisfaction later in life (Bianchi, 2013).

    Coping tools are a “must” right now, as well as this summer and all of next school year and beyond. There’s one coping tool that can turn adversity into something beautiful for each person who practices it. Bonus! It’s one of the best ways to close your schoolyear. Curious? It’s…

    Reflection Through Self-Expressive Writing: A Power Tool

    “Reflection is a generic term for those intellectual and affective activities in which individuals engage to explore their experiences, in order to lead to a new understanding and appreciation” (Boud, Keough, & Walker, 1985). Reflective writing is a free, easily accessible, and versatile therapeutic exercise for anybody! Reflection can be expressed through drawings, discussions/talking, and/or writing.

    My definition of reflection is: “Valuable, relaxed time spent to deeply think about an important experience (design some questions/prompts) to extrapolate meaning from this experience, to organize the thinking about it, and to ultimately determine what went well, what could improve, and how to move forward.” It might start with drawing or webbing and could eventually lead to talking about the thoughts. Finally, one should bring all of those pieces together in writing, translating those experiences into language, which makes the experience more “graspable.” The ultimate goals are self-awareness, problem-solving, and personal growth--to get better!

    Research supports this process too! Did you know that if you truly want to change your thinking patterns and behaviors, reflection usually precedes it? Reflection is a key ingredient to changing, growing, and getting better. American philosopher, psychologist, and educational reformer John Dewey wrote, “We do not learn from experience…we learn from ‘reflecting’ on experience.” Researchers Stefano, Gino, Pisano and Statts, (March 2014) found that the effect of reflection on learning is correlated with greater perceived ability to achieve a goal, and this self-efficacy or agency (belief that we can meet our goals) can be the reason we persist when the going gets tough.

    When we regularly take the time for personal reflection, we can process and make events more meaningful. In fact, research shows (Glaze, 2001) that reflection times can help you improve your understanding of the context you work in, change your perspective on issues, and deepen your understanding of issues.

    Just in case you are not convinced that writing about how we feel is powerful, take a look at this supportive research:

    • Participants who wrote about their most traumatic experiences for 15 minutes, four days in a row, experienced better health outcomes up to four months later (Baikie & Wilhelm, 2005).
    • Participants who wrote about the most stressful event of their lives experienced better health evaluations related to their illness (Smyth, Stone, Hurewitz, Kaeli, 1999).

    • Writing about intensely positive experiences was associated with an enhanced positive mood along with significantly fewer health center visits for illness (Burton and King, 2004).

    Teachers, as you are wrapping up the school year, please use this list of reflection questions just for you that are super relevant for these COVID-19 times too. Enjoy reflecting so that you can process your feelings, grow, and determine how you will improve remote learning next year. Here are a few to get your started:

    • Who am I grateful for this past year and why? 
    • I learned the following about distance learning… and if we are going to engage in that practice next year, I will do the following the same/differently…
    • This past school year, I experienced the following emotions…because of the following experiences… (use the Feeling Wheel).

    Get the entire free list of prompts here: https://maximizelearninginc.com/home/free-resources-for-educators/

    You will want to ensure that your students experience the power behind reflection as well. Use the steps below for your students to set up self-expressive writing as a beautiful closure to this school year and as an ongoing tool to encourage them to use throughout the summer. (BONUS: Set up self-expressive writing time every single day once school begins next year. Students will have much to process through when they return, and so will you! This is truly the best gift you can give them as you wrap up this school year).

    Here are a few self-expressive writing prompts for this end of the year to get you started:

    • What do I like about distance learning and why? What didn’t I like about distance learning and why?
    • What suggestions do I have for next year’s students and teachers if/when remote learning starts back up again?  (Both the positive and growth opportunities.)
    • What did I learn about myself as a learner, problem-solver, and/or friend to others?

    How Can You Powerfully Set up Expressive Writing Time for Your Students? (distance-learning friendly too)

    1. Share the power behind expressive writing with your students so there is more buy-in. 
    2. Make sure the writing environment is peaceful (if remote learning is occurring, invite them to go outside under a tree, shut their bedroom door, or sit in another cozy spot, maybe it’s a couch with a great big lamp, try some classical music to block extraneous noise, etc.).  
    3. Encourage students to use a special journal that has the expressive writing all in one location; reviewing thoughts and growth can be very encouraging. Research still supports good old-fashioned handwriting versus typing when it comes to expressive writing opportunities (Although, virtual learning platforms may need students to type).
    4. Choose a prompt that is fitting for that day, for the season, or for experiences in the community, or give several choices since you may not know everything that went on in those children’s lives last night. See examples at these websites:
    5. http://www.positivepsychologytprogram.com (Tool Instructions & Reflection Prompts) https://reflectionsfromaredhead.com/writing-prompts-for-self-reflection

      NOTE: The act of writing about any traumatic or minor stressful event, even if the writing was destroyed immediately afterward, still had positive effects on health.

    6. Determine how long this expressive writing time might take based on the choices that you give to your students and set a timer (some students need to increase their writing stamina and a timer could help). Suggestion: 15-20 minutes of uninterrupted time. Choice is important since some topics may be too personal at that moment and time.
    7. Options: You can give them a list of Criteria for Success for this writing prompt(s), an exemplar and non-exemplar, ask them to help you design the requirements for this writing opportunity, or give them no expectations at all since it’s self-expressive writing. Teacher clarity is extremely important! The more you explain what the expectations are and include the students’ voices in the learning task, the more motivated students become to engage in the task.  FYI: Don’t worry about spelling or grammar with this type of writing.

    8. Celebrate the writing if appropriate. Students can share if they want (this type of writing is very personal), you can give them some type of feedback or comments, or they can self-assess or invite a peer to give feedback (if and only if student chooses).  In fact, let them choose the audience - self only, teacher only, other…

    ,

    Other Fun End-of-School Year Closure Ideas

    • Celebration videos from each student sharing the best part of the school year. Co-create Criteria for Success for this show and tell; let them choose the product in which they share. (Electronic Product Ideas: www.kathyschrock.com)
    • Drive-by or walk around the school with signs, music from phone, or other artifacts about the best components of “their” school.
    • Create a Classroom/School Historical Journal. Each student contributes a piece of their Self-Expressive Writing (they choose).  Publish this journal on your district website, your classroom website, or in a blog (with everyone’s permission).
    • Create a Teacher Collage Video.  Teachers create individual videos wishing their students a happy end to the school year and then someone assembles them into one master video to share out with students, even on social media.

    When we take the time to expressively write about how we are feeling about experiences (big or small, good or bad) we force our brains to focus and organize the experiences, which leads to so many benefits! For reflection time to have a greater impact, we must always look through this lens: Based on what I learned from these experiences, what can I do differently in the future?

    Don’t forget to look back at your journal entries. When we review what we have written in the past, we can be reminded of how resilient we were during some challenging times and which tools helped us the most.  Writing is one of the strongest memory tools out there. It can help you persist through the tough times that change can bring.  Reflecting through writing has given me hope that there is much I can do to manage my stress. This is just one powerful tool to help me, you, and our students cope with stress and trauma. Give the gift of reflection through writing to yourself and your students.

    References

    Baikie, K. A., & Wilhelm, K. (2005). Emotional and physical health benefits of expressive writing. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 11(5), 338-346. doi:10.1192/apt.11.5.338

    Bianchi, E. C. (2013). The bright side of bad times: The affective advantages of entering the workforce in a recession. Administrative Science Quarterly, 58(4), 587-623. doi:10.1177/0001839213509590

    Boud, D., Keogh, R., & Walker, D. (1985). Promoting reflection in learning: A model. Reflection: Turning reflection into learning. London: Routledge.

    Burton, C. M., & King, L. A. (2004). The health benefits of writing about intensely positive experiences. Journal of Research in Personality, 38(2), 150-163. doi:10.1016/s0092-6566(03)00058-8

    Glaze, J. E. (2001). Reflection as a transforming process: Student advanced nurse practitioners' experiences of developing reflective skills as part of an MSc programme. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 34(5), 639-647. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2648.2001.01793.x

    Smyth, J. M., Stone, A. A., Hurewitz, A., & Kaell, A. (1999). Effects of writing about stressful experiences on symptom reduction in patients with asthma or rheumatoid arthritis. Jama, 281(14), 1304. doi:10.1001/jama.281.14.1304

    Stefano, G. D., Gino, F., Pisano, G. P., & Staats, B. R. (2014). Learning by thinking: How reflection aids performance. SSRN Electronic Journal. doi:10.2139/ssrn.2414478


    LeAnn Nickelsen is an award-winning educator and author, a nationally-trained expert on student learning, and she's passionate about providing educators with strategies that can be used immediately to maximize learning in the classroom for ALL students. She has authored/co-authored 14 educational books.

    Author: LeAnn Nickelsen
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