Using SOURCES to allow digital natives to explore the Lewis and Clark Expedition

The authors discuss use of the SOURCES framework to promote authentic learning experiences in a social studies classroom.

By: Scott M. Waring, Cicely Scheiner-Fisher


Far too frequently, many students find history to be boring, rate it as their least favorite subject, or perceive it as irrelevant (Allen, 1994; Black & Blake, 2001; Jensen, 2001; Zhao & Hoge, 2005). One way to help young adolescents find relevance and meaning in the study of history is to focus on historical people. Often, when American history classes highlight people who created history, the content is centered on the accomplishments and lives of political leaders, like the founding fathers and various myths surrounding them (George Washington's apple tree), or events that changed the nation (the drafting of the Declaration of Independence). To make history more germane for our middle grades students, the inclusion of primary sources in the teaching of historical content allows them to begin to understand that real people, not mythological characters, create history.

In a People's History of the United States, Zinn (1980) illustrated the importance of the history of the common people, not just the rich, white, elite politicians. After all, most of our students identify personally with common people from the historical periods we study rather than the landed gentry or political leaders. Examining how these events affected the lives of people similar to themselves has the potential to help students understand that the history lessons we implement are pertinent to their lives. School textbooks are good examples of how the study of history has lost the personal aspect that is essential in students' comprehension of historical people and events. Often, the published story in a textbook is overly indulgent to the heroic nature of the agents involved. Fortunately, many of the people we should study and want to study have left records of their existence that, in some ways, bring them back to life. As Mintz (2003) noted:

Letters, diaries, and other original documents allow us to hear the living voices of the past. By encouraging students to see history through opposing viewpoints, … primary sources can encourage a more sophisticated understanding of the forces that have shaped our society. (p. 41)

This article focuses on two individuals, Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, to show how, through the investigation of primary sources, middle grades students might develop a better understanding of the past and how "ordinary" people impact the course of history.

Historical content and primary sources in the middle grades

The National Middle School Association (NMSA) (2010) developed major goals of middle grades learners including: becoming actively aware of the larger world; asking significant and relevant questions; being able to think rationally and critically; being able to independently gather, assess, and interpret information from a variety of sources; and to use digital tools to explore, communicate, and collaborate. Similarly, The National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS, 1991) stated that middle grades students need opportunities to learn using "concrete objects or situations from which students derive data for further thought or action. It is perhaps the single most effective vehicle for helping young adolescents make meaning out of their world. All of us learn by doing" (para. 45). Furthermore, Levstik and Barton (2005) identified several themes educators should attempt to explore in their teaching of historical topics: to think about who we are, to picture possible futures, to consider significant questions or themes, to examine social, political, and economic factors, and to study controversy. When teachers incorporate the use of primary sources in the learning of historical content, especially the digitized variety, students are given the opportunity to meet these goals in productive and interactive ways.

Students who analyze primary sources have more frequent opportunities to use higher-order thinking skills than their counterparts who do not (Drake & Brown, 2003; Gerwin & Zevin, 2003; Wineburg, 2003). Learning about history becomes more pertinent to students when they are actively involved in authentic historical inquiry. Critical, engaged thinkers often find it more difficult not to wonder about the purpose, creator, and context of a document or image. Authentic integration of primary sources into history instruction encourages students to question the material, which is vastly different from having information presented to them in the format of a story to be remembered but not questioned.

Educators who create a lab-like classroom environment to promote historical inquiry are able to integrate state and national standards into classroom experiences (White, O'Brien, Smith, Moretensen, Hileman, 2006). One specific way this is accomplished is through the use of primary sources in instruction throughout the disciplines under the social studies umbrella, including geography, history, politics, psychology, sociology, and anthropology. Classrooms devoted to such historical inquiry often result in rich and rewarding learning opportunities for students (O'Brien & White, 2006).

SOURCES Framework

Students, especially those in the middle grades, need a structured setting for authentically learning about the past, as, for many, this is the first opportunity to engage with the past through the use of primary sources. There are many options for structuring a historical inquiry activity; however, we chose to use the SOURCES framework (see Figure 1). First, allow the students to examine a primary source selected by the teacher as the one source that is fundamental to learning about the content or subject to be learned. Second, have the students organize their thoughts. Students should think about what knowledge they have about the content being presented in the fundamental source and the individual(s) who constructed it. If a student needs additional background information, the teacher may provide narrative(s) that better explains the underlying historical content being covered. This is a great time to incorporate children's and young adult literature. Third, check for comprehension of the context and the source that is being examined. Students should monitor their thinking and be sure the source is not taken out of context or viewed through lenses, morals, and principles of today. Fourth, model and scaffold the act of "reading between the lines," which means that the students should not necessarily take whatever is viewed at face value; rather, students should consider multiple perspectives. And, students should think about motivations for the construction and the intended audience of the source being examined. Fifth, use and/or find additional sources that will corroborate or refute what is being presented in the fundamental source. Sixth, construct a plausible narrative from the data collected and analyzed. The investigation and learning should continue during this phase to locate additional sources and to append and modify narratives as new information is discovered. To conclude, students should summarize any additional thoughts and formulate questions for future investigation.

Figure 1
The SOURCES Framework
Scrutinize the Fundamental Source
Organize Thoughts
Understand the Context
Read Between the Lines
Corroborate and Refute
Establish a Plausible Narrative
Summarize Final Thoughts

Digital history for digital natives

As early as 1993, Ayers and others began looking at the ways in which historians and other social scientists could use digital technologies to disseminate historical information. Ayers (1999) noted that these new technologies seem tailor-made for history, as they allow users opportunities to touch the past, present, and future in ways not previously possible. Digital historical resources differ from traditional primary source documents in a few ways. They are more accessible, searchable, and flexible; additionally, they encourage archival activity, promote social networking, and are easier to manipulate (Lee, 2002). Students today, also known as digital natives, expect these qualities in their tools, as they are accustomed to the ease and flexibility that comes with a 21st century life (Prensky, 2001).

One of the benefits of using primary source documents with digital natives, especially from a digital collection such as the ones found within the Library of Congress website (http://www.loc.gov), is that students can acquire the requisite content in engaging ways while using the habits of mind specific to the discipline of history (National Center for History in the Schools, 1996). An example of this is the website Fill up the Canvas … Rivers of Words: Exploring with Lewis and Clark. On this site, the staff at the Library of Congress has created a digital, interactive map that imaginatively displays many of the primary source documents focused on the Lewis and Clark Expedition that the Library of Congress owns. Fill up the Canvas guides students through some of the most relevant and interesting documents related to the expedition. It allows users an opportunity to examine the challenges faced on the expedition by the members of the Corps of Discovery and to gain a better understanding of Thomas Jefferson's role in establishing an American presence in the West. Additionally, students will begin to see this expedition as one that involved people like themselves acting as historical agents rather than as a listing of names and events.

The Rivers of Words website is useful for grades 4–12, as it includes journal entries by Captain Clark describing the first American interactions and observations of the grizzly bear; the killing of a buffalo when the corps is near starving; meeting the Sioux; their suffering through the winters at Fort Mandan and Fort Clatsop; and the death of one of their members, Sgt. Floyd. Other documents in this digital activity include President Thomas Jefferson's proposal to Congress for the expedition, Captain Lewis' plans from Harper's Ferry, and President Jefferson's explanation of the Louisiana Purchase in a letter to Captain Clark. Though the site has been created to be accessible for students as young as fourth grade, teachers can differentiate by having students navigate to the actual diary in which details are richer; in some cases, the content may not be appropriate for the younger students.

Using SOURCES to examine the Lewis and Clark Expedition

For an examination of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, we wanted students to use various primary sources from the River of Words website, as well as additional resources, to focus on the question "What was it like for Lewis and Clark to travel west?" We had students use the SOURCES framework to structure the learning process.

Scrutinize the fundamental source

Figure 2

Figure 2

Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Meirwether Lewis on June 20, 1803
Prior to beginning the lesson, the first step for us was to choose a source that we considered to be fundamental to understanding what it was like for Lewis and Clark to travel west. It is believed that there is no source "more important for the exploration of the American West than the letter of instructions Jefferson prepared for Lewis" (Library of Congress, 2010, para. 8). Thus, we chose the letter (see Figure 2) from Thomas Jefferson to Meriwether Lewis on June 20, 1803 (http://tinyurl.com/7b7wbg6), as our fundamental source. Students were provided the letter itself as well as the typed transcript; most used the transcript while glancing at the letter. This letter outlined what would be provided for the expedition (see Figure 3) and general instructions for carrying out western exploration, primarily focusing on finding a water passage across the continent "for the purposes of commerce" (see Figure 4) and other purposes ranging from botany to ethnography.

Figure 3
Excerpt from the Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Meirwether Lewis on June 20, 1803 about provisions
Instruments for ascertaining by celestial observations, the geography of the country through which you will pass, have been already provided. Light articles for barter and presents among the Indians, arms for your attendants, say from 10. to 12. men, boats, tents, & other travelling apparatus with ammunition, medicine, surgical instruments and provisions you will have prepared with such aids as the Secretary at War can yield in his department; & from him also you will receive authority to engage among our troops, by voluntary agreement, the number of attendants above mentioned, over whom you, as their commanding officer, are invested with all the powers the laws give in such a case.

Figure 4
Excerpt from the Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Meriwether Lewis on June 20, 1803 about the purpose of the mission
The object of your mission is to explore the Missouri river, & such principal stream of it as by it's course and communication with the waters of the Pacific ocean whether the Columbia, Oregon, Colorado or any other river may offer the most direct & practicable water communication across this continent for the purposes of commerce.

Figure 5

Figure 5

Primary source analysis sheet from the Library of Congress
To scaffold student learning at this stage, we chose to use a primary source analysis sheet produced by the Library of Congress. This sheet (see Figure 5) allows students to better understand a source by asking them to observe, reflect, and question a source. Students examined the source by first observing it. Students must be very literal and record what is seen or read, without making any interpretations or analysis. Next, students reflected on the observations by thinking about the meaning of what they observed; made further analysis of the source; and, finally, recorded inferences. Last, students thought about what questions they may have about the source. For more advanced learners, the source analysis sheets provided on the National Archives website are very useful. This process helped to focus students' attention and allowed them to begin to think historically about the document and the expedition itself while mentally constructing questions to be investigated.

Organize thoughts and understand the context

After reading the letter from Jefferson to Lewis, students were asked to think critically about what they know about this source, Thomas Jefferson, and Meriwether Lewis. Most of our students had little to no background knowledge. For the students who needed more background information and/or help in understanding the letter, we provided links to a webcast video of Gerard Gawalt, American History specialist, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress, in which he discusses the draft of a letter that Thomas Jefferson sent to Meriwether Lewis to initiate the Lewis and Clark Expedition.

By watching this video, most students acquire an understanding that Jefferson was interested in an expedition west far before this letter was crafted in 1803. Jefferson's father was interested in land speculation; he wrote a letter almost identical to this one in 1793 to a Frenchman named Andre Michaux, who, incidentally, turned out to be a French spy. Thomas Jefferson tried to enlist George Rogers Clark, the older brother of William Clark, in 1783 to explore the West so that the United States could acquire lands before their European rivals. Jefferson was fascinated with Alexander McKenzie's book describing his expedition to the Pacific Ocean across Canada in 1801. This, along with other factors, caused Jefferson to turn to Meriwether Lewis, his personal secretary at the time, and plan and structure an expedition to discover parts west of the Mississippi River. Students also realize that when the instructions were prepared, Jefferson had no plan to expand past the Mississippi River, and the Louisiana Purchase had not occurred and was not expected, so the expedition was traveling into foreign territory.

Additionally, one of the first things students learn from viewing the video (and something that is shocking to most) is that Thomas Jefferson created multiple drafts of letters and meticulously examined his writings, shared the letters with experts and colleagues, and often rewrote them with his new understanding. The students were quite surprised to learn that the letter they were reading was not the first draft; by examining these resources, they were able to learn about the development of the process leading up to the expedition. Another fact that astonished most was that Jefferson shared the draft with Benjamin Rush, Benjamin Barton, other noted scientists of the time, members of his cabinet, as well as Meriwether Lewis himself for feedback, and he then incorporated their thoughts into the letter. Although the letter is dated June 20, 1803, they learned that it was a much longer process that began well before this date and that, although the thoughts were mostly his, Jefferson shared the letter and incorporated views of others.

Additional sources we provided to help with understanding background content were the Rivers, Edens, Empires: Lewis & Clark and the Revealing of America website, the Discovering Lewis and Clark website, and various children's literature texts (see appendix A for an expanded list). Along with the resources found on the Library of Congress website, the students found the Discovering Lewis and Clark website to be the most useful. This site is one of the most comprehensive resources available on the subject, as it contains biographical information on each of the members of the Corps, 360° imaging of sites along the journey, and primary documentation from many of the explorers and individuals involved. Discovering Lewis and Clark provides detailed information on the vessels used by Lewis and Clark, the types of technology available, and meticulous background information on the important people and places involved.

Read between the lines

Once the students had a better understanding of the context of the letter and of Thomas Jefferson and Meriwether Lewis, we asked them to revisit the letter from Jefferson to Lewis and to "read between the lines." Most found the Gawalt video to be extremely informative because it provided a sufficient amount of background information to properly reexamine the letter, while others used some of the other sources in addition to the video.

Through the additional sources students are able to reread the letter with a deeper understanding of the context and can "read between the lines" to better understand what Jefferson was trying to convey. Now, the students were better able to understand the portions in the letter in which Jefferson instructed Lewis that they may meet Native Americans and representatives of Spanish, French, and English government, who may want to interfere with the expedition, and that they should be careful not to offend those with whom they have contact. Students now realize that the plan was to travel through foreign territory not U.S. land, and they are able to more critically read and comprehend the document.

Another key element learned by most, creating a new perspective for reading the document, was that the expedition was not solely a scientific venture. Most of the students were now able to read the letter understanding that, when Jefferson was looking for Congressional support for the expedition, it was billed as a commercial endeavor that would inform of the commercial possibilities for trade with Native Americans and find a river route to the Pacific to gain access to the Chinese marketplace. His directions for Lewis reflect this purpose outlined for Congress.

One other element that is read from a different perspective is that students more clearly understood Jefferson's purpose in asking Native Americans to travel back to the eastern cities of the United States with them. Jefferson thought that the Native Americans might be impressed with how civilized Americans were, which would encourage them to trade with the United States. Additionally, students reread the section Gawalt pointed out, in which Jefferson inserted a line that discussed how they might guarantee security for themselves. They now understand that this was done as an encouragement for Lewis to take hostages along the way to better ensure safe passage. With the content background increased, the students were much better equipped to read critically and analyze the contents of this letter and to begin a more in-depth investigation to understand the expedition taken by Lewis and Clark.

Corroborate and refute

Figure 6

Figure 6

A map exhibiting all the discoveries in the interior parts of North American (1802)
Since a very basic understanding of what it was like for Lewis and Clark to travel west had been developed by this point, it was essential for students to engage with and examine multiple additional primary sources that would corroborate or refute the thoughts that had been developed. We asked the students to informally record the understandings they had at this point about Lewis and Clark's trip west to help focus the next stage of their learning process. During this portion of the learning process, we asked students to construct a primary source set that would further their understanding of the letter from Jefferson to Lewis and the overarching question "What was it like for Lewis and Clark to travel west?" Students were allowed to use a list of some of the most important primary sources related to the Lewis and Clark Expedition and the "For Students" section of the Library of Congress's Themed Resource set for the Lewis and Clark Expedition; additionally, they were encouraged to visit the Fill up the Canvas website to use any sources found there. The groups of four students examined and discussed each of the sources and used them to modify and add to the understandings developed about the journey. Students included various documents, maps, journal entries, letters (political and friendly), drawings, and images of artifacts, collected on the journey. Specific examples of these included letters from President Thomas Jefferson, Congressional documents, letters between Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, ledger sheets of supplies and trade goods, and detailed accounts of interactions between members of the Corps. One of the most popular sources chosen is a map (see Figure 6) that was carried by Lewis and Clark and was later used in 1803 by Thomas Jefferson to show the French ambassador, Louis Andre Pichon, the path used by Lewis and Clark. A source such as this one helped students to understand the paths taken and to map out the journey, while other popular sources, such as the cipher (see Figure 7) from Thomas Jefferson to Meriwether Lewis, initially were not chosen to better understand the expedition. During further discussion, students began to comprehend that a source such as the cipher told more about the nature of the trip than first was thought.

Figure 7

Figure 7

Cipher from Thomas Jefferson to Meriwether Lewis, April 20, 1803
One student found an excerpt from Captain Lewis's journal (see Figure 8) that illustrated how important each decision was to the continued support of the expedition. Based on this journal entry, this student saw how precarious support for the journey had become and how the Captains made those decisions with the best information they could gather; this was not a haphazard course. This entry also illustrated the uncertainty Captain Lewis had about the continued cooperation of the men, especially when one wrong move could mean starvation, mutiny, ambush, or death.

Figure 8
Excerpt from Meriwether Lewis's Journal, which illustrates decision making
Monday, 3d, we crossed and fixed our camp in the point, formed by the junction of the river with the Missouri. It now became an interesting question which of these two streams is what the Minnetarees call Ahmateahza or the Missouri, which they described as approaching very near to the Columbia. On our right decision much of the fate of the expedition depends; since if after ascending to the Rocky mountains or beyond them, we should find that the river we were following did not come near
the Columbia, and be obliged to return; we should not only lose the travelling season, two months of which had already elapsed, but probably dishearten the men so much as to induce them either to abandon the enterprise, or yield us a cold obedience instead of the warm and zealous support which they had hitherto afforded us.

We determined, therefore, to examine well before we decided on our future course; and for this purpose despatched two canoes with three men up each of the streams with orders to ascertain
the width, depth, and rapidity of the current, so as to judge of
their comparative bodies of water. At the same time parties were sent out by land to penetrate the country, and discover from the rising grounds, if possible, the distant bearings of the two rivers; and all were directed to return towards evening.

In one of the sources, students are given a partial account of the interaction Lewis had with a bear, in which the bear was shot while it was chasing the captain (see Figure 9). There is nothing very objectionable, nor unscientific about the description; however, teachers should be aware of the graphic nature of the anatomical description.

Figure 9
Excerpt from Meriwether Lewis's Journal regarding a bear encounter
…both captain Lewis and the hunter fired and each wounded a bear: one of them made his escape; the other turned upon captain Lewis and pursued him seventy or eighty yards, but being badly wounded he could not run so fast as to prevent him from reloading his piece, which he again aimed at him, and a third shot from the hunter brought him to the ground: he was a male not quite full grown, and weighed about three hundred pounds: the legs are somewhat longer than those of the black bear, and the talons and tusks much larger and longer. The testicles are also placed much farther forward and suspended in separate pouches from two to four inches asunder, while those of the black bear are situated back between the thighs and in a single pouch like those of the dog: its colour is a yellowish brown, the eyes small, black, and piercing, the front of the fore legs near the feet is usually black, and the fur is finer, thicker, and deeper than that of the
black bear: add to which, it is a more furious animal, and very remarkable for the wounds which it will bear without dying.

One student focused on the entry in which the Corps of Discovery finally reached the Pacific Ocean (see Figure 10). As this student read Lewis's journal entry, she began to feel the excitement viscerally. We saw that, as students completed this portion of the activity and were asked to discuss their feelings within small groups, they experienced the emotional highs and lows that the men on the expedition faced and better understood the sights, sounds, and smells explained in the sources, as if they themselves made the journey and were now reaping the fruits of their labors. Specifically, several students noted that they had never thought about what an arduous journey this would have been and how these real people were experiencing and creating history. For students who wanted to more thoroughly examine the journals, we provided them with the Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition website, as this site provides the complete text of the most authoritative edition of Lewis and Clark's journals.

Figure 10
Excerpt from Meriwether Lewis's Journal about reaching the Pacific Ocean
Opposite to these islands the hills on the left retire, and the river widens into a kind of bay crowded with low islands, subject to be overflowed occasionally by the tide. We had not gone far from this village when the fog cleared off, and we enjoyed the delightful prospect of the ocean; that ocean, the object of all our labours, the reward of all our anxieties. This cheering view exhilarated the spirits of all the party, who were still more delighted on hearing the distant roar of the breakers. We went on with great cheerfulness under the high mountainous country which continued along the right bank; the shore was however so bold and rocky, that we could not, until after going fourteen miles from the last village, find any spot fit for an encampment. At that distance, having made during the day thirty-four miles, we spread our mats on the ground, and passed the night in the rain.

Establish a plausible narrative

There are multiple ways in which students can demonstrate historical understanding. We decided that we wanted our students to construct an authentic assessment piece that would show their understanding of the central question for the lesson: "What was it like for Lewis and Clark to travel west?" Through the use of creative assessment strategies, teachers can be confident that they are attending to topics of study and reaching a deeper level of understanding while teaching students about the difficulties and triumphs experienced by the members of the Corps of Discovery. One such authentic assessment strategy following these ideas, and the one we selected, was to engage the students in creating their own illustrated journal as members of the Corps. This experience placed students at the center of the action, the people mentioned in the journal became their compatriots, and they were encouraged to describe the scenarios in their own words and to illustrate the events, just as the members of the Corps did in their journals. As the students explored the journals and other primary source documents, and constructed their own journal, the process necessitated that they analyze the decisions made by Captains Lewis and Clark and synthesize their understandings in ways that were easily assessable. Additionally, in a counterfactual exercise, we asked students to imagine what would have happened if Lewis and Clark did not make that fateful journey.

Summarize final thoughts

Lastly, we asked the students to think about what they learned and what questions still lingered. For a final homework activity, the students constructed questions they wanted to continue to explore and determined if sources might be available to investigate their queries. Several students pointed to the logistics of conducting a journey such as this, at this time and at different times throughout American history. Many wondered more about the individuals, besides Lewis and Clark, who made this expedition possible and about their thoughts and feelings during the journey, as well as what they did after the conclusion of their adventure. We wanted them to continue to understand the tentative nature of history and the fact that historians often have questions that must remain unanswered, as, often, sources do not exist to answer them concretely.

Conclusion

It is essential to find ways to bring history to life for digital natives and to help them realize that fictional characters did not construct the past and people are historical agents and not passive recipients of events. One method for doing this is to use digital resources found on the Internet, such as the digital repository available through the Library of Congress. An ideal historical topic for focusing historical thinking, while using these resources, is looking at the events of the Lewis and Clark Expedition through the perspectives of the agents involved.

The SOURCES approach to learning about the Lewis and Clark Expedition outlined in this article urged our students to explore several of the themes outlined by Levstik and Barton (2005): to think about who we are; to picture possible futures; to consider significant questions or themes; to examine social, political, and economic factors; and to study controversy. Each student viewed, examined, and integrated sources that focused on several of these themes. Additionally, this approach led students to question common themes in social studies, such as those outlined in the National Curriculum Standards for Social Studies (NCSS, 2010).

Learning experiences, such as theses lessons on Lewis and Clark, offer many opportunities for teachers to encourage students to explore central historical themes in an authentic manner. In this case, we were able to allow our students opportunity to connect to the material by placing them in the middle of the action as members of the Corp of Discovery. Furthermore, this learning experience promoted historical inquiry by presenting documents students were able to question and investigate to find the information they needed to make sense of the past. By allowing students to learn about historical content in an engaging manner, these digital natives often become more aware of the work of historians, gain a deeper understanding of the content, and begin to develop a more critical understanding that it was ordinary people who constructed history, not just the dead, white, elite politicians.


References

Allen, J. (1994). If this is history, why isn't it boring? In S. Steffy & W. J. Hood (Eds). If this is social studies, why isn't it boring? (pp. 1–12). York, MA: Stenhouse.

Ayers, E. L. (1999). The pasts and futures of digital history. Retrieved from http://www.vcdh.virginia.edu/PastsFutures.html

Black, M. S., & Blake, M. E. (2001). Knitting local history together: Collaborating to construct curriculum. Social Studies, 92, 243–247.

Drake, F. D., & Brown, S. D. (2003). A systematic approach to improve students' historical thinking. The History Teacher, 36, 465–489.

Gerwin, D., & Zevin, J. (2003). Teaching U.S. History as mystery. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Jensen, M. (2001). Bring the past to life. The Writer, 114(11), 30.

Lee, J. K. (2002). Digital history in the history/social studies classroom. The History Teacher, 35, 503–518.

Levstik, L. S., & Barton, K. C. (2005). Doing history: Investigating with children in elementary and middle schools (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Library of Congress. (2010). Rivers, edens, empires: Lewis & Clark and the revealing of America. Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/lewisandclark/lewis-landc.html

Mintz, S. (2003). Using primary sources. Magazine of History, 17(3), 41–43.

National Center for History in the Schools. (1996). National standards for history. Los Angeles, CA: National Center for History in the Schools.

National Council for the Social Studies. (1991). Social studies in the middle school: A report of the Task Force on Social Studies in the Middle School. Silver Spring, MD: NCSS.

National Council for the Social Studies. (2010). National curriculum standards for social Studies: A framework for teaching, learning, and assessment. Silver Spring, MD: NCSS.

National Middle School Association. (2010). This we believe: Keys to educating young adolescents. Position paper of National Middle School Association. Westerville, OH: Author.

O'Brien, J. E., & White, S. H. (2006). Recapturing the history standards: Historical inquiry in the middle grades. Middle School Journal, 37(4), 11–16.

Prensky, M. (2001). Digital natives, digital immigrants. On the Horizon, 9(5). Retrieved from http://www.marcprensky.com/writing/Prensky%20-%20Digital%20Natives,%20Digital%20Immigrants%20-%20Part1.pdf

White, S. H., O'Brien, J. E., Smith, A., Mortensen, D., & Hileman, K. (2006). A history lab environment in the classroom brings the standards to life. Middle School Journal, 37(4), 4–10.

Wineburg, S. (2003). Teaching the mind good habits. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 49(31), B20.

Zhao, Y., & Hoge, J. D. (2005). What elementary students and teachers say about social studies. The Social Studies, 96, 216–221.

Zinn, H. (1980). A people's history of the United States. New York, NY: Harper & Row.


Scott M. Waring is a professor in social science education at the University of Central Florida School of Teaching, Learning, and Leadership. E-mail: Scott.Waring@ucf.edu

Cicely Scheiner-Fisher is an instructional specialist in Seminole County Public Schools. E-mail: Cicely_Fisher@scps.us

Appendix A:

Children’s Literature used for Background Content

Adler, D. (2000). A picture book of Sacagawea. New York, NY: Holiday House.

Bergen, L. (2000). The travels of Lewis & Clark. Austin, TX: Steadwell Books.

Berne, E. C. (2010). Sacagawea: Crossing the continent with Lewis & Clark. New York, NY: Sterling.

Bertozzi, N. (2011). Lewis & Clark. New York, NY: First Second.

Bohner, C. H. (1985). Bold journey: West with Lewis and Clark. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

Bowen, A. R. (1997). The back of beyond: A story about Lewis and Clark. Minneapolis, MN: Carolrhoda Books.

Christian, M. B. (1993). Who’d believe John Colter? New York, NY: Macmillan.

Faber, H. (2001). Lewis and Clark. New York, NY: Benchmark Books/Marshall Cavendish.

Gragg, R. (2003). Lewis and Clark on the trail of discovery: The journey that shaped America. Nashville, TN: Rutledge Hill Press.

Gunderson, J. (2007). The Lewis and Clark Expedition. Mankato, MN: Capstone Press.

Gunderson, J., Martin, C., & Schultz, B. (2007). Sacagawea: Journey into the west. Mankato, MN: Capstone Press.

Myers, L. (2002). Lewis and Clark and me. New York, NY: Scholastic.

O’Dell, S. (1986). Streams to the river, river to the sea: A novel of Sacagawea. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

Perritano, J. (2010). The Lewis and Clark Expedition. New York, NY: Children’s Press.

Schanzer, R. (1997). How we crossed the West: The adventures of Lewis & Clark. Washington, DC: National Geographic Society.

Shaughnessy, D., & Carpenter, J. (1997). Sacajawea, Shoshone trailblazer. New York, NY: PowerKids Press.

Scheuerman, R., & Ellis, A. (2001). The expeditions of Lewis & Clark and Zebulon Pike: North American journeys of discovery travelogue. Madison, WI: Demco.


Published in Middle School Journal, March 2014.

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